Maria Carolina Costa Melo Svidnickia, Moisés Alves Ferreira Filho, Marcelo Mendes Brand?o, Marielza dos Santos, Renata de Oliveira Dias, Renato Sampaio Tavares, Guilherme Rossi Assis-Mendonça, Fabíola Traina, Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad.
Familial forms of bone marrow defects are rare disorders and description of new cases are valuable opportunities to clarify the molecular machinery that triggers hematopoiesis and blood formation, as well as risk to malignant transformation. We investigated the genetic scenario and possible patterns of transmission in a rare case of familial myeloid disorder with a history of exposure to pesticides. Blood counts of two proband sisters, age 41 and 42, revealed mild anemia, neutrophilia and thrombocytopenia with bone marrow finding mimicking primary myelofibrosis in the cellular phase. We analyzed the coding regions of 78 myeloid neoplasms-related genes and 16 encoding xenobiotic metabolizing genes using Next-Generation Sequencing. The GATA1 variant c.788C > T, p.T263M, located in the C-terminal zinc finger domain of GATA1, was detected in the DNA of the two sisters. The screening of the other kindreds also revealed the p.T263M variant in the mother and two daughters with the same bone marrow disorder. This is the first report of an alteration in the GATA1 CF domain causing anemia, thrombocytopenia and megakaryocyte proliferation with mild myelofibrosis, correlating a new GATA1 germline variant with myeloid disorder.