Metabarcoding analysis reveals an interaction among distinct groups of bacteria associated with three different varietals of grapes used for wine production in Brazil

1Rezende, G.S; 2Funnicelli, M.I.G;3Rocha, F.I 1Malavazi, I; 4,5Crauwels, S.; 6Brandao, M.M.; 1Cunha, A.F.

1 Genetic and Evolution Department, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Genetics (LBGA-UFSCar), SP, Brazil;
2 Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Department of Agricultural, Livestock and Environmental Biotechnology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
3 Mokichi Okada Research Center/ Korin Agriculture & Environment
4 Laboratory for Process Microbial Ecology and Bioinspirational Management (PME&BIM), Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics (CMPG), Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
5 Leuven Institute for Beer Research (LIBR), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
6 Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética - Laboratory of integrative and systemic biology (LaBIS- UNICAMP), SP, Brazil

Grapes are globally popular with wine production being one of the most well-known uses of grapes globally. Brazil has a growing wine industry, and the Serra Gaúcha region is a significant contributor to the country's wine production, while other states are also increasing the production. Environmental factors heavily influence grape quality, shaping the crucial "terroir" for wines. Here, the soil quality was assessed through nutrient analysis and microbial diversity, which could significantly impact grape health and final wine attributes. Soil samples from São Paulo's vineyards, focusing on Syrah, Malbec, and Cabernet Sauvignon, underwent physicochemical and microbial analysis via 16S rRNA metabarcoding and highlighted significant differences in soil composition between vineyards. Statistical analyses like PCA and CAP showcased region-based separation and intricate associations between microbiota, region, and grape variety. Correlation analyses pinpointed microbial genera linked to specific soil nutrients. Random Forest analysis identified abundant bacterial genera per grape variety and the Network analyses revealed varied co-occurrence patterns, notably Cabernet Sauvignon exhibiting complex microbial interactions. This study unveils complex relationships between soil microbiota, nutrients, and diverse grape varieties in distinct vineyard regions. Understanding these specific microorganisms associated with grapes holds promise for enhancing vineyard management, grape quality, and wine production, potentially optimizing soil health and bolstering grapevine resilience against pests and diseases, contributing to the unique character of wines known as terroir.

Keywords: Grape; Microbiota; Nutrients, Vineyards; Soil diversity.

Supplementary material:

Rezende, Graziela Silva; Funnicelli, Michelli Inácio Gonçalves; Rocha, Fernando Igne; Malavazi, Iran; Crauwels, Sam; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Cunha, Anderson Ferreira da, 2023, "Supporting material referenced on the manuscript metabarcoding analysis reveals an interaction among distinct groups of bacteria associated with three different varietals of grapes used for wine production in Brazil",